Domestic violence is commonly known as an unspoken situation among individuals around the world. The behaviors are physically, emotionally, and mentally unstable for many individuals. It can sometimes be linked to many theories; one theory being “The Social Learning Theory. If done coercively, the behavior can be viewed as one partner dominant of the other. This Literature Review is a reflection on views around the world as they pertain domestic violence related to women.
Trends From 1993-2000
The article by Catalano (2012) “Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010 shows many of the statistics among both sexes of different races and the importance of collecting the data for others to recognize the importance of domestic violence awareness. Shannan Catalona is a BJS (Bureau of Justice Statistics) Statistician who prepared the report on “Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010). This article ties in with research topic because it gathered a lot of research from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Crime Victimization Survey. Unfortunately, this data only reports domestic violence issues within the United States.
This article helps shape my research by allowing me to collect data. The methods performed in collecting the data was done by the U.S Census Bureau, which as I stated earlier omits individuals outside of the United States. The test procedure used in this study was Student’s t-statistic, which tests the difference between the two sample estimates of each statistic collected.
Domestic Violence in the ’90s
The article “Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making Distinctions by K. Ferraro and M. Johnson (2000) isn’t that on of a research question or methods. Within this article, it gives an overview of the different distinctions and types of domestic violence. This article will help shape my research question by allowing me to have more insight into the different types of domestic violence and how families interact with being exposed to domestic violence. Also, the different relationships and the different forms of predators who commit domestic violence. Often these relationships can play a very vital role in the lives of those who witness the acts of domestic violence.
Witness to Domestic Violence
Within this article, the research question is ‘Whether similar estimates of effect size were obtained from correlational and group-comparison designs and whether effect sizes in group-comparison studies varied significantly depending on the nature of the comparison group (Gaylord, Holt, Kenny, & Kitzmannz, 2003, p.339). The methods used in this study were based on more than 20 qualitative reviews that have shown the effects of individuals who witnessed violence among those who were married.
The findings showed that there were similar effects that had a different array of outcomes. The findings also show that children who were of preschool age may be at a greater risk of witnessing domestic violence. This article helps shape my own question because it has material that allows me to focus on those who witness domestic violence. Also, I’m able to connect the effects to future questioning beyond my initial question.
Measures Domestic Violence and Alcohol
In the article Child Witness to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analytic Review by (Dilworth, Kaysen, Larimer, Resick, Simpson, & Waldrop, 2007 )The research question: Is there a relationship between alcohol use and symptoms associated with chronic trauma exposure (. Domestic violence and alcohol use is more than a problem. Domestic violence can be associated with mental health and other major health issues. This article gives insight on the individuals that are exposed to traumatic events and the trauma symptoms they face.
The sample in this article used were 369 participants. Many of these individuals came from domestic violence shelters and other agencies. The testing instruments used to measure this study were Timeline Followback (TLFB), Drinking Motive Measure (DMM), and Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI). The findings show that there isn’t a relationship between the variables. This research helps shape my study by giving me insight into the use of alcohol and domestic violence. Also, it helps me by allowing to examine the different test measures.
Alcohol Policies and Domestic Violence
In the article, (2015) “The role of alcohol policies in preventing intimate partner violence: a review of the literature (Kearns, Reidy,& Valle, 2015) it discusses how alcohol policies and intimate partner violence are commonly correlated together. The method used to collect information on this study was basically just researching peer-reviewed articles and policies that go hand in hand with intimate partner violence. Many of the outcomes came out to be very consistent across the border. Although knowledge of intimate partner violence wasn’t overly recognized and in some cases limited so that created gaps in the research.
Although this article focused on pricing of alcohol policies and restrictions on how alcohol can be sold it didn’t show a significance on the outcomes of alcohol being present issue in intimate partner violence. This study will shape my research question by allowing me to focus on the main outcomes of alcohol use and how it pertains to violence. Also, I will be able to focus on a strategic plan to implementation knowledge of the use of alcohol use as it pertains to intimate partner violence.
Pregnancy and Domestic Violence
The article by Glander, Moore, and Parsons (1998) titled “The Prevalence of Domestic Violence among Women Seeking Abortion allows me to gather information on women 18 years age and older who want to have an abortion, after being abused sexually. Also, this article helps show just how detrimental the effects of domestic violence can be. The question asked within this article is to investigate the prevalence of any type of self-report due to abuse; which includes forced sexual activities and any recent activities of physical and mental abuse in women 18 years of age and older wanting to have an abortion. Very sadly this is an issue that happens daily and should be highlighted when speaking on domestic violence.
The methods used to perform this study were done among a self-administered survey of no more than 486 women who all have been involved in abusive relationships who have wanted to have an abortion. Many of the questions appeared to be open-ended questions in reference to individuals that were asked if their pregnancy ended due to abuse in their relationship. The results from this questionnaire showed that the Caucasian female would be more likely to report any types of abuse opposed to any other race. The study also shows that women are wanting to have an abortion done.
Ethics and Saftey
The primary reason I choose to use the article (2001) “Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Research on Domestic Violence Against Women by the World Health Organization is that it focused mainly on women. The focus of this study was to focus on ethical and safety of women and their overall health. Also, this study allows me to show the reader of this research on the importance of women’s health and the ethical dilemmas they face. This study was done on a quantitative level due to there being interviews.
This article helps shape my research question by allowing me to understand the ethics and safety issues while conducting my own research. Also, this article will allow me to narrow down many factors in my research.
Mental Health Issues
The article (2014) “Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Effects of Domestic Violence relates to my topic by allowing the reader to compare and analyze whether or not women and men are statistically on the same level when it comes to domestic violence a health issue. Whether or not the sexual orientation of the individual matters in some cases; sexual preference is a matter of the findings. This study also allows me to connect domestic violence to other health concerns as well.
The study shows that in Gerlock (1999)” both victims and batterers in heterosexual relationships sustain similar amounts of long-term mental health problems, while batterers seem to have more long-term physical problems (Alejo, 2018, pg. 10). The study has a great significance on domestic violence, because the outcome shows that women suffer greatly from abuse long-term mentally, physically and emotionally. This article shapes my study by allowing me to view domestic violence at different angles and aspects of the perpetrator.
Mental Health Support
In is article, “Domestic Violence and mental health: a cross-sectional survey of women seeking help from domestic violence support services (2016) it discusses how mental health can be seen as an issue when dealing with domestic violence. This article aimed to overlook the mental health of women as it relates to domestic violence. This study measures the levels of abuse that occurred and the current mental health of the participants who were affected in some way due to domestic violence issues. This study included 260 women who volunteered. Also, there was a PATH baseline questionnaire that was used to collect the data need for this study.
The findings of this study included that many of those who participated in the study suffered from psychological distress and partners of intimate partner violence seemed to be increasingly worse in mental health issues. This study will shape my study by allowing me to use different matures to conduct my study. Also, I have can reflect my findings to see if they’re consistent with my findings.
Domestic Violence in Malaysia
“The Impacts of Domestic Violence on Children: Perspectives from Women in Malaysia who Experience Abuse gives me the view from another country (World Health Organization, 2001). This article informs the reader of the many different experiences of women that have become victims of domestic violence. The methods were to facilitate this study was quantitative. This study required individuals to be interviewed. The data was collected in at the most 50 minutes of in-depth interviews. This article also informs the reader of how children began to view the perpetrator within the relationship who seemed to be the more dominant figure in the household. Many times, it tends to leave a negative effect on those who witness the abuse.
This study focuses on women in Malaysia who experience abuse from the counterparts. Whether the abuse directly shown or not shown many women in other countries experience abuse and have to remain submissive due to their culture. This article shapes my research question in a way for the reader to understand a different culture and how they experience domestic violence issues. Also, I can inform the reader about being open to understanding that people experience abuse in the same way, but they act on their experience totally different than others.
In many of the articles that I have chosen to inform the reader of domestic violence, the population has mainly been women between the ages 18 and 65. These articles will be helpful to my research because they will inform the reader of ways to recognize the signs of domestic violence. When someone is known to be an abuser, many studies show that the individual may have witnessed trauma of seeing abuse may be the cause of them becoming an abuser. Domestic violence should never be a silent topic and should have more resources so that more people can be aware of their loved ones who are experiencing abuse.
Social Learning Theory
Readers must first understand how the social learning theory relates to domestic violence. As children began to get older, they began following the paths of those who have raised them. These individuals tend to begin a pattern of learned behavior. Although some individuals are raised in single-parent homes many others are raised in dysfunctional families. In these homes, they may have witnessed their mother or father being very violent towards one another and the individual begins to think that is acceptable behavior. Domestic violence is becoming more noticeable than it used to in past years. Even if most Domestic violence cases are never reported they are still relevant to those who witness the behavior. Domestic violence leads to individuals becoming isolated from those around them and they shut down from the inside. Although awareness of the problem is slowly coming to the surface many are still afraid to speak out referencing back to the social learning theory.
The purpose of this research is to examine the research question: Is there a correlation between alcohol usage and domestic violence?
A 23- item questionnaire will be administered to assess the frequency by both victims and perpetrators at here in the City of Memphis. The questionnaire will be developed in 2018 to elicit responses from both men and women about non-sexual assault; unwanted sexual activity of any kind, including attempted, uncompleted, unwanted sexual intercourse; rape; the involvement of alcohol in any of these experiences; whether any of these acts were reported to helping agencies or police officials; and demographic information. The participants will be asked to identify different types of assault and their experiences during the time of the domestic violence.
Approval for this study will soon be granted by the Union University Institutional Review Board. The subjects will be asked to give their consent in order to participate in this study by voluntarily responding to and returning the questionnaire.