This review will be divided into four-subsection to focus in explain the general factors in Domestic violence against in various type of gender and include animals. Many researchers have different opinion and summarize different factors that causes to abusive violence. Each gender have own different ability and perspectives. I analyses theses literatures in order to fulfill my understanding about Domestic Violence in various gender type and how it relate to the other living things such as animals. Mostly the article utilized were found on the ProQuest databases and other sources using the keywords domestic violence, violence against (women, men, homosexual, animals). The terms domestic violence will be used through this review and it present my own perspective and credit to all researcher from all literature resources. Definition Researcher examined domestic violence in different relationship.
According to my definition of domestic violence is any incident of controlling, coercive, threatening behavior, violence or abuse over who are, or have been intimate partners or family members regardless of gender and sexuality. The abuse can encompass but not limited to psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional. Yuhong describe domestic violence by pointing out five elements;
1) a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors, including physical, sexual, and psychological attacks as well as economic coercion.
2) Conduct perpetrated by adults or adolescents against their intimate partners in current or former dating, married, or cohabitating relationships or heterosexuals, and homosexuals.
3) A pattern of behaviors including a variety of tactics some physically injurious and some not, some criminal and some not carried out in multiple, sometimes daily, episodes.
4) A pattern of purposeful behavior, directed at achieving compliance from or control over the victim.
5) A combination of physical attacks, and controlling tactics used by perpetrators that result in fear as well as physical and psychological harm to victims (Yuhong 2002: 214).
Goldstein defines domestic violence in the following way as Domestic violence is a behavior driven by a need to control. It can range from threats, annoying telephone calls and stalking (such as following the victim to and from work, and threating her/him). ), to unwanted sexual intercourse, hitting and, in the worst case, even death (Goldstein 2007:9). The combined effect of social, cultural, individual and circumstantial factors are believed to cause abuse in intimate relationships (WHO 2002: 119). The main risk factor that majority contribute to domestic violence first is alcohol consumption as alcohol affects self-control abilities as well as lowers inhibitions which increases the risk of aggressive behavior (WHO 2002: 120). Another significant risk factor is stress caused by a lower socioeconomic status. In some cultures it is more acceptable for a man to be in control in a relationship and violent behavior is mostly the result of this loss of control. The risk factors of violence against women Violence against women is widespread, and may affect women of any age, class, race, religion, sexuality, or ability. To better understand about domestic violence against women, some researchers have sought to identify associated risk factors in various way. The main risk factors that directly cause to domestic violence is alcohol assumption at harmful and hazardous level because heavy drinking can create unhappy and stressful partnership that increase the risks of conflicts and violence.
According to a cross-section study in Dhiraj General Hospital in Mumbai, India 41.2% of women had experience in domestic violence when their partner was under the influence of alcohol (Sandeep H 2012). More experiences from Juriah, who have been married for eight years as her husband used drugs and alcohol as an excuse to behave violently towards her, and believed his inability to deal with unemployment was underlying factor of his violent behavior (Lenore and Linda 2003). The reason that Alcohol is the main factors of conflict as alcohol directly affects cognitive and physical function, reducing self-control and leaving individuals less capable of negotiating a non-violent resolution to conflicts (WHO, 2006). Moreover, Youth and Carrera have found that lower economic resources and poor standards of life increase the incidence of domestic violence as the Cambodian case study shows hypothesis that motivate the cause of domestic violence against women. For example women in poorer households will have higher chance of experiencing domestic violence and women that have low self-esteem might also experiences in sexual violence (Yount and Carrera 2006) because those women feel they cannot do better than the situation they are in and lack of confident in themselves as they under control by their partner.
Women may return to their abusers because needed or expected supports and opportunities are lacking. Violence against men Female domestic violence against men has always been the most controversial subject in the field of domestic violence (Carney 2006). The domestic violence against women is a norm, while violence against men is not only regarded as an exception but almost non-existence. Which many research are likely focus less than women. However, George (2004) argues that this was due to two forbidden beliefs in society: first, that a man can be beaten by a woman; second, the uncomfortable reality that women can be aggressive and violent, which stereotypical of femininity and is an attribution that neither men nor women wish to acknowledge. In terms of partner abuse, such power inequalities are seen to be maintained in gender stereotypes of the man as aggressive and dominant and the woman as passive and submissive (Dobash and Dobash, 2002). George (2004) agree this view point as he argues that the history of domestic violence is linked to the patriarchal ideas of men always being the perpetrators. One of the possible main factors that cause to violence against men is masculinization (Corry 2000).
As the concept that females are capable of taking on a more masculine role in society and this makes them perform gender roles typical for men such women are able to enact controlling behavior. The form of violence that women use on men. First is emotional abuse, as a form emotional abuse include threatens or behavior controls the victim’s freedom. Criticism and Verbal can caused to emotional abuse as it involves the use of language, which can consist as threats, blaming, ridicule and disrespect (Carney et al, 2006). This lead stress and possible lead to emotional disorder. Second, (Barber 2008) states that men are faced abusive violence similar to women, which are stabbing, injuries to the genital and teeth knock out. Nowadays, there a few international or states NGOs that support the case of domestic violence against men because of the gender stereotype and majority situations. However, the NGOs that support men for example Men’s resources international (MRI) are helps men around the globe practice and promote a healthy, compassionate, and responsible model of masculinity. Their approach is to identify and support men’s networks in all stages of development. Another international NGOs is Men engage as a global alliance of NGOs and U.N. agencies that seeks to engage boys and men to achieve gender equality. Members include WHO, UNDP, UNFPA, and UNIFEM collaborate with 400 NGOs in all over continent. It shows that men are reserved gender equality same as women and also need support and protection from domestic violence.
Violence against homosexually Natalie E describe that domestic violence that occurs within same-sex relationships is a problem that largely exists under the radar for national governments, international organizations, domestic violence agencies, and even LGBT communities (Natalie E, 2013). It lack of attention and awareness from public. Same as heterosexual relationships, homosexual couple may experience physical abuse, such as punching, kicking, scratching, and using weapon. Abuse may take the form of threatening to ‘out’ a Partner to their family or friends. Mostly it was controlling, one of the respond to Michael that he/she cannot have friends even if it male or female (J, Michael 1998). Victims can find it harder to seek help and support because of fear of confirming stereotypes. However, the domestic violence in same sex relationship suffer from the same pattern as opposite sex, it follow that LGBT experience the same breach of essential of human rights, to life, dignity and bodily when they abused by their partner. Natalie E also argues that same-sex violence need attention of the international community to support and should be incorporated into the international discourse on LGBT human rights that has been emerging and develop at the United Nations within the last two decades (Natalie E, 2013). Animal Cruelty A significant amount of research illustrates the connection between domestic.
According to (Febres, et al 2014), animal abuse refers to socially unacceptable behavior that intentionally causes unnecessary pain, suffering, or distress to an animal abuse as animals are incapable of symbolic interaction because they lack language. With animal cruelty, the perpetrator can project the abuse physically, verbally, and mentally. The pattern of domestic violence can refer to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) as physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Dadds, Turner, and McAloon (2002) depict that there are nine distinct incentives for maltreatment. The first motivation is to have control over the animal, which includes influencing an animal’s behavior or eradicating unwanted features of the pet (Dadds 2002). Secondly, there is retaliation, in which an offender may partake in excessive reprimand or vengeance alleged wrong on part of the animal (Dadds 2002).
The third is satisfaction of a prejudice against a species or breed , whereby abusers label a species as either good or bad. There has been strong evidence of extreme prejudice frequently found against certain types of rodents, pests, or insects; and with that comes a supplementary belief that such animals do not deserve fair treatment (Dadds 2002). Another shared incentive is the manifestation of violence through an animal, so in this case dogs may be trained to attack other animals or people (Dadds 2002). Nowadays, many organization emerging frameworks that might fill the gap in global animal welfare protection include a universal declaration on animal welfare, the entrenchment of World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) animal health standards and an international convention for the protection of animal welfare. However, any of these models succeeding in the short term. The challenge now is to think carefully about what legal form an international framework for animal protection might take to succeed in long term.