Usability Concepts of Human-Computer Interaction

Introduction

According to Dix (2009), the use of the computer has revolutionized virtually all operations in the world. For example, the computer technology has attracted the attention of industries, communication, transport, agriculture, medicine, education, security among other sectors. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have occupied a fundamental place in our lives. The expansion in new technologies such as virtual correspondence including cell phones, PCs, and tablets is causing changes in our day-to-day propensities, conduct and performance.

Currently, computerized gadgets and equipment have been installed in almost all aspects of our lives with a view to make work easier and improve the livelihood of humankind (Rosson & Carroll, 2002). That is, the automation of activities and production has found their place in almost all socioeconomic and industrial sectors and are now occupying a central place in human life.

For example, in the contemporary world, one needs not to hire a security guard to secure their home or property. Rather the use of computer software and CCTV cameras, which are more accurate than human beings, are installed and able to detect and produce an alarm in the event an intruder attempts to enter a restricted area. Furthermore, using other more humanly interactive computer apps and networks such as the social media (Skype, Twitter, Facebook, and WhatsApp), it is now possible to interact with people across the globe in real time. Skype allows a one-on-one video interaction and has been vital in video conferencing and other social purposes. With this regard, it is evident that the invention of computers and network-related technologies has transformed the entire world into a global village (Dix, 2009).

However, various organizations, companies and stakeholders have highlighted challenges related to difficulties of use and user-machine friendliness. It is, therefore, worth noting that the effectiveness, efficiency and safety of the use of modern technologies depend on the extent to which usability and Human-computer Interaction is configured.

Problem statement

The use of modern technologies including social media, computers and other communication devices is very critical in the contemporary society. Students, companies and organizations have recorded soaring profits, improved marketing, and client engagement and improved sale volume through the use of Social media networks. However, other users, stakeholders and organizations have reported loses and reduced performance due to the increased competition in the use of modern technologies and failure to accord the usability and HCI the attention it deserves.

This work, therefore, highlights the usability concepts of human-computer interactions in order to decipher on the various negative impact of computer and internet networks on socioeconomic and psychological aspects of the consumer. Furthermore, it seeks to provide understanding about the most effective, efficient, safe and appealing computer usability and HCI and its impact on the attraction of customer in computerized processes (Rosson & Carroll, 2002)

Research Questions

This work seeks to provide answers to the following research questions:

1. Does the current lack of usability and HCI in social media networks have a negative impact on Saudi Arabia students who live in U.S?

2. What is the role of Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) in using social media that have negative effect on Saudi students scholars?

3. Is there a correlation between the FoMo and HCI?4. What are some of the effective ways of improving the usability and HCI?

Literature Review

Usability Concepts of Human-Computer InteractionTo begin with, usability entails the ease of use or learnability of a human-made gadget or object such as a device or a tool. For instance, in software engineering, usability refers to the degree to which software can be used and applied by the target consumer to achieve certain objectives with significant effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a given environment or context (Rosson & Carroll, 2002). The object of use can be a website, tool, book, process or software or anything a human can interact with. According to Sharp, Rogers and Preece, (2007), in the contemporary world, the usability and HCI are reported as core aspects of the system development process that improve system facilities, leading to the satisfaction of users needs and necessities.

For example, the concept of HCI has been reported as key in assisting designers, users and analysts in the identification of system needs from font styles, text styles, color, graphics and layout (Karat et al., 2005). On the other hand, usability is key in the confirmation if the system is effective, efficient, safe, easy to learn, utility, easy to remember, easy to evaluate and to use and practically visible and whether it can provide satisfaction to the users (Dix, 2009).

Therefore, it is evident that adopting the concept of HCI in system development processes such as the sustainable design using a specific technology is critical in measuring and accomplishing users tasks and goals (Dix, 2009). Furthermore, any manufacturer, designer or producer of goods and services wishing to benefit from HCI concepts should include these aspects in their quest and agenda as a way of enhancing technology performance and acceptance in order to satiate users needs and necessities (Rosson & Carroll, 2002).A

ccording to Jacob & Karn (2003), a commercial website with efficient and effective HCI is likely to be more profitable and useful. Thus, HCI is a very crucial concept in the development of system processes because it entails creating and understanding software and other technologies that people use in their day-to-day life. It also entails the usability concept, the methods, and tools necessary for encouraging its use, achieving goals, evaluating and measuring. However, reports have indicated that such projections are a touchstone, as far as the culture of computing is concerned.

Moreover, for enhanced usability and profitability of any company, it is important to understand this topic as the enrollment of such a concept entails obtaining user requirement, especially in the early stages of design, as well as evaluating systems that have been built. With this regard, it is Important to note the various methodologies that are used to create and enhance effective technologies. Rosson and Carroll (2002) have also reported that the methodologies critical in addressing detailed concerns such as typography, design, graphics, navigation, sound, and multimedia. However, these methodologies are not entirely final as they do not provide an adequate or absolute approach to the usability of HCI.With regard to the concept of HCI, it is important to define some terms related to the computer interface development process (Shneiderman, 2010).

For example, the terms interface and interaction should be well defined and understood, if only the development process is concerned with improving usability and enhancing human socioeconomic and psychological satisfaction. Interface refers to a visible peace of a system that the user is able to hear, see or touch (Bevan, 1995). On the other hand, interaction’ is a general term that covers the users’ activities. For example, when the consumer types some text using the keyboard or makes a click using a mouse, the activities are referred to as interaction.

Thus, the general concepts of HCI are critical in website design. According to Jacob and Karn (2003), website designers are striving to create “user-friendly” sites as it is essential to maximizing user response.However, it is important to discover more methodologies that enhance product user-friendliness through designing computer applications that are friendlier. Therefore, designers need to come up with diverse, innovative and creative insights in order to meet future users’ values and needs through supporting tasks and translating knowledge into an executable system (Shneiderman, 2010).

Preece and Rombach (1994) have shown that the future of enhancing HCI is based on the accomplishment of a good interface design that will enable the user interact and deal with computer websites and technologies without any challenge and to let the user exercise control of the site. Thus, in order to work effectively and efficiently in the development process, HCI must be part of the process (Sasse, Brostoff & Weirich, 2001). Rogers, Sharp & Preece, (2011) reported that HCI has two dimensions that involve the user during the development and implementation of new systems as well as evaluation of the users cognitive and behavioral factors that are critical when consumers interact with computers.

These dimensions should also be consistent and mutually depended in order for the evaluation process of HCI to become a basis for decision-making regarding tradeoffs during product development (Jacob & Karn, 2003).For any company, manufacturer, producer and provider goods and service, the goal of HCI should be to produce effective, efficient, usable and safe systems that are fully functional and able to meet the users’ needs (Preece & Rombach, 1994). Some of the goals include safety, appeal, utility, efficiency, and effectiveness. Furthermore, the goals should focus on how quickly tasks can be achieved as well as the system’s appeal to the customer. In general, usability is an important concept in HCI because it is concerned with ensuring the systems are easy to learn, use and with insignificant error severities and frequencies (Shneiderman, 2010).

Thus, system development should be geared towards the establishment of a simple system with good usability through understanding social, economic, psychological and organizational factors that determine how people make use of the computer technology effectively. System development should also endeavor to develop techniques and tools to help designers in ensuring that computer systems are relevant for the activities for which the consumer will use them (Preece & Rombach, 1994). This is possible through providing safe interaction terms for both computer interaction and individual HCI. With such knowledge, the goals and needs should be considered very carefully at the design stage since most of the users may not change radically in order to fit in with computer systems but. Rather, the computer systems should be tailored to match their requirements (Jacob & Karn, 2003).

References

Bevan, N. (1995). Usability is quality of use.В Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics,В 20, 349-354.

Dix, A. (2009). Human-computer interaction. InВ Encyclopedia of database systemsВ (pp. 1327-1331).

Springer US.Jacob, R. J., & Karn, K. S. (2003). Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research: Ready to deliver the promises.

В Mind,В 2(3), 4.Karat, J., Vanderdonckt, J., Abowd, G., Calvary, G., Carroll, J., Cockton, G., … & Jacob, R. (2005). HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION SERIES VOLUME

Preece, J., & Rombach, H. D. (1994). A taxonomy for combining software engineering and human-computer interaction measurement approaches: towards a common framework.В International journal of human-computer studies,В 41(4), 553-583.

Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., & Preece, J. (2011).В Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction.

John Wiley & Sons.Rosson, M. B., & Carroll, J. M. (2002).В Usability engineering: scenario-based development of human-computer interaction.

Morgan Kaufmann.Sasse, M. A., Brostoff, S., & Weirich, D. (2001). Transforming the weakest link human/computer interaction approach to usable and effective security.

В BT technology journal,В 19(3), 122-131.Sharp, H., Rogers, Y., & Preece, J. (2007). Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction.

Shneiderman, B. (2010).В Designing the user interface: strategies for effective human-computer interaction. Pearson Education India.

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