The Role of HIV in Serious Diseases

HIV/AIDS is a serious disease that can affect anyone if they are not careful enough to protect themselves. HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, and without proper attention it can completely destroy someone’s immune system. This happens when the virus destroys a white blood cell called a CD4 cell, which is a white blood cell that’s essential to fighting off infections. There are two types of these cells. One of them is the T4 cell and the other one is the T8 cell, the difference is that the T4 cell helps fight the infection while the T8 kills whatever infection is occurring in the body. So, if it continuously spreads, this disease can be harmful to the population and cut lives short. HIV is transmitted through blood, sperm, sex, and even breast milk but these aren’t the only ways it can be transmitted. There are other ways that are surprising and unlikely. For example sharing needles , tattoo and body piercing parlors, childbirth (which only affects the baby born if the mother has it ), and organ transplants. When it comes to HIV no one can be too careful. Being cautious is the best way to avoid getting it because it’s better to be safe than sorry.

The main place where people should think they are safe is the hospital , but in Britain this wasn’t the case. Four wellbeing specialists in England have passed away due to being exposed with HIV through healing facility mischances including needles. Nine others have likewise gotten the infection in the wake of the comparative wounds while working in doctor’s facilities, are as yet alive.

The figures are in a report by the Wellbeing Security Office and go to the Place of Center Open Records Advisory group, which has been exploring the issue of needle wounds among NHS staff. It is the first run through points of interest of HIV contaminations from working environment mischances have been distributed.

The HPA discovered five unmistakable cases previously 1999 where wellbeing specialists had been contaminated through damage at work. Four of the casualties had passed away. The cases incorporate two medical attendants, one male, one female, who were contaminated in independent episodes in the wake of pricking their fingers on needles utilized on patients who had AIDS. Three female social insurance laborers were contaminated in comparable ways. People who work at hospitals are even at risk of receiving the virus if they aren’t careful enough.

Anyone who isn’t receiving treatment for HIV can have a hard time fighting off infections and diseases. On top of that HIV has two different stages it enters before it becomes Aids. The first stage is Acute HIV, this is the beginning stage of HIV. It takes two to four weeks for the effects to kick in. The virus begins to spread throughout the body and then the person affected begins to have flu like symptoms such as headaches , fevers, rashes, and a loss of appetite.

Chronic HIV has a different effect on a person’s body. It’s more sneaky and effects your body slowly. The disease takes longer to take over the immune system because they replicate themselves at a much slower rate. Chronic HIV may not sound as bad as Acute HIV but chronic HIV is still able to affect others. That’s why it’s a more sneaky version of HIV and if a person doesn’t realize they have it, within ten years or less without proper treatment, they will receiv AIDS.

Aids on the other hand, is a set of symptoms that occur when a person has HIV. If a person is said to have a weak immune system that is too weak to fight off infections, Aids become stronger and leads to death. Biotechnology companies are looking for a cure so less people will be infected and more people survive the disease.

As you can see below, over thirty five thousand people have died in 2016 since the virus began and that number will continue to grow unless a cure is found. If this virus continues to spread it can continue to kill more and more people.

The next chart shows the major areas affected by HIV/AIDS. Apparently East and Southern Africa are more undeveloped than the other regions in the world. This could potentially be the reason why they are being affected the most because they aren’t as clean as the other countries or dont have the necessary things needed to prevent HIV from spreading. The problem can continue to get worse if people from these regions come to others seeking help, because if they aren’t properly notified or are aware of the virus. . . they can harm a lot of people.

Children are also being affected by HIV. If a woman who has HIV has a child, that child will also have HIV. The main focus of a potential dosage should be given to the children since they still have a life to experience and because their immune system is still growing. As you can see below mostly men have HIV because of the gay communities. So they would most likely have the dosages last. It would make more sense to save women because when they are pregnant because we’d be able to save both lives rather than just one.

There’s a conspiracy that’s around that involves the virus. Many believe that HIV wasn’t a natural disease, but it was a man made one that’s been used to control the population. HIV was first discovered in France by a man named Luc Montagnier. Although this may be true , HIV had made an uproar in Africa and reached the United States in the late 1990’s. Some people believe that HIV was created by the government to try and get rid of minorities, one specific person who believed this was Jack Felder; a black germ specialist at the fifth army regiment in Chicago.

In 1999 there was an identical disease that was called SIV but instead of humans having it, monkeys had it. SIV is the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus can affect monkeys and has a similar effect as HIV, it cannot affect humans just as HIV cannot effect monkeys. Studies show that monkeys have had SIV for thousands of years and that it originated in Africa. This may be the reason why HIV is so common and largely spread there. As you may already know , monkeys are the closest mammal to humans. When scientists conducted research and studied the monkeys, they realized that the HIV strain came from the SIV strain in monkeys. So this means that the SIV was somehow transferred to a human, but apparently no one knows how or why.

The monkeys who were infected with the SIV virus had eaten two smaller monkeys with two different strains of SIV. With two different strains of SIV it created a new and third strain of SIV called SIVcpz. One theory that scientists have about the transfer of SIV to humans was that a human hunter may have eaten the monkey or had to fight the monkey. Which would ultimately cause the monkeys blood to enter the humans through battle. A human’s body can withstand most diseases that an animal can have but the only problem is that the SIV strain was strong enough to adapt and become stronger.

Protection from a new monkey rendition of HIV has been accomplished with another sort of hereditarily designed counter acting agent. In the event that further examinations demonstrate effective, it could open up another road in the battle against HIV and Aids.

Sound individuals are to be tried with the immune response in a wellbeing trial anticipated that would start in late 2018. Notwithstanding that trial, a different report is being considered to test the immune response in HIV patients.

HIV long back quit being a capital punishment, in any event for the individuals who get the best possible care. Notwithstanding, the infection is for all patients and extremely difficult to wipe out from those contaminated. What’s more, the infection stays dangerous for the untreated, of whom there are numerous in devastated nations.

Antibodies, one of the ways the insusceptible framework battles contaminations, have turned into a promising road of research. Be that as it may, even the most effective normally happening HIV antibodies don’t offer adequate assurance. So in this examination, researchers swung to hereditary designing to enhance nature.

A French Biotech company named Abivax, focuses on the safe framework to cure viral illnesses, their job is to try and develop remedies that can improve the immune system enough to fight off diseases and infections. The organization has declared introductory outcomes from the primary associate of patients in its latest Stage, the IIa trial testing its potential HIV cure, ABX464. Introductory outcomes bolster the medication’s capacity to altogether lessen the HIV repository over a 28-day time frame.

The following partner of patients has initiated dosing for a 3-month period,and it’s scheduled results are set to be expected in mid 2018. The mice that were affected by HIV were dealt with for 50 days with either ABX464 or traditional HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment), ABX464 was not just ready to decrease the viral load over the 50 days treatment period (As seen in the gray area) yet additionally to keep up a low popular load up to a month and a half after treatment capture (As seen inside of the green circle). You can tell by the difference in the figures shown that treated mice had a viral load completely bounce back to pre-treatment levels inside 14 days in the wake of ceasing the treatment ( As seen in the orange circle). This information proposes that ABX464 is changing the harmony between the Infection and its control by the insusceptible framework.

Another major Biotechnology company that is working on trying to find a cure is GeoVax. GeoVax Labs is a clinical-arrange biotechnology organization that is dedicated to creating human antibodies against diseases that are hard to fight against diseases. Their specialty is creating VLPs from the cells of the individual accepting the immunization. A VLP is a (Virus Like Particle). Creating VLPs in the individual being imitates a characteristic disease, invigorating both the humoral and cells of the safe framework to perceive, avoid and control the objective contamination should it show up. Which ultimately means that the company makes vaccines for people to are trying to avoid getting HIV.

GeoVax most exceptional antibodies are currently a work in progress and are intended to work against the clade B subtype of the HIV infection that is common in America, Australia, Japan and Western Europe. Their preventive clade B HIV immunization has effectively finished Stage 2a in human clinical testing and has entered a take after on clinical trial. This antibody has demonstrated “”exceptional security and fantastic, very reproducible immunogenicity so it’s improving and will probably be in stores soon. They are now stretching out their HIV antibody to the most widely recognized infection subtype influencing the people who are infected the most , which is clade C, but are still examining the HIV antibodies for their capability to add and to blend treatments which is prompting a cure for HIV diseases.

OYAGEN is another biotechnology organization that was founded on September 5, 2003, to discover, create, and expose pharmaceutical treatments that try to abuse RNA altering and DNA altering catalysts. Over the previous decade, a progression of research have distinguished two groups of related catalysts known as Altering Compounds.

These compounds are endogenous cell proteins, which artificially adjust RNA or DNA particles and along these lines change the hereditary code. OyaGen trusts that there is a critical chance to “”bridle the altering procedure”” to make treatments for various infection states. OyaGen’s underlying remedial concentration is a noticeable way to deal with the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. This underlying spotlight on HIV is driven by a progression of notable disclosures… some of which have been recently distributed.

Although these treatments are helping people, some people will not be able to be saved because of the drug resistant strain of HIV. In basic terms, drug resistant HIV refers to the capacity of illness causing germs, for example, microscopic organisms and infections to keep increasing notwithstanding the nearness of medications that for the most part execute them.

With HIV, tranquilize protection is caused by changes (transformations) in the infections hereditary structure. These transformations can prompt changes in specific proteins, most normally catalysts, which enable HIV to repeat (recreate). Changes are extremely basic in HIV. This is on the grounds that HIV repeats at a to a great degree fast rate and does not contain the proteins expected to revise the slip-ups it makes amid duplicating.

Transformations happen arbitrarily, once a day, however numerous are safe. Truth be told, most transformations really put HIV off guard they decrease the infection’s “”wellness”” and ease back its capacity to contaminate CD4 cells in the body. In any case, various changes can really give HIV a survival advantage when HIV solutions are utilized, in light of the fact that these transformations can square medications from conflicting with the HIV catalysts they are intended to target. These are the transformations we are worried about when we discuss medicate protection.

HIV depends on numerous proteins to repeat inside a human cell. It additionally depends on proteins, including gp41, to hook on to CD4 cells and taint them.

Not at all like genotypic testing, which searches for specific hereditary transformations that reason tranquilize protection, phenotypic testing straightforwardly measures the conduct or phenotype of a man’s HIV in light of specific antiretrovirals. In light of the way phenotypic tests work and the outcomes they give, numerous specialists trust that these tests are more thorough and reliable than genotypic tests, particularly when testing tests from individuals who have attempted and fizzled various HIV tranquilizes previously.

Utilizing the easiest terms, phenotypic testing is performed by putting tests of a man’s HIV in test tubes with every HIV medication to watch how the infection responds. The capacity of the infection to develop (or not develop) within the sight of each medication is assessed. The infection is presented to changing qualities, or fixations, of each medication. The capacity of the individual’s infection to develop within the sight of the medications is contrasted and some wild-type infection that is known to be 100 percent helpless to all HIV drugs. The examination between the individual’s infection and the wild-type infection gives the phenotyping comes about.

These outcomes tell specialists the amount of a specific medication is expected to diminish HIV replication. At the end of the day, the research facility leading a phenotypic test is attempting to decide the sum, or focus, of medication expected to prevent HIV from duplicating.

For instance, if four fold the amount of the NRTI Ziagen (abacavir) is expected to control HIV replication, the infection is said to have “”fourfold protection”” to the medication. In the event that seven fold the amount of Ziagen is required, the infection is sevenfold impervious to the medication.

At the point when phenotypic tests initially ended up accessible, translating these overlay changes was troublesome. It wasn’t clear what a crease change implied as far as the infection being completely delicate, less touchy, or not delicate to a particular HIV tranquilize. Accordingly, organizations directing phenotypic tests started working intimately with analysts to better comprehend overlap changes and what they extremely mean regarding protection from accessible drugs. Following quite a long while of broad research, these organizations have created “clinical shorts” a critical segment of phenotypic testing that takes into account significantly simpler understanding of crease changes as they identify with the affectability of HIV to huge numbers of the accessible meds.

Coming back to the case of Ziagen, utilizing Monogram Bioscience’s PhenoSense HIV test, the lower clinical cutoff is 4.5-overlap protection and the upper clinical cutoff is 6.5-crease protection. As such, HIV that is fourfold impervious to Ziagen is still in fact touchy to the medication, though HIV that is sevenfold impervious to Ziagen implies that the infection is significantly less delicate to the medication and, therefore, not a decent treatment decision.

With respect to overlay changes that fall between the lower and upper shorts, this implies incomplete protection (the higher the crease change, the less touchy HIV is to the medication being utilized). While it is constantly best to utilize antiretrovirals that your infection is completely delicate to, it is now and then important to utilize (or reuse) drugs your HIV is mostly impervious to.

Every HIV sedate has distinctive clinical shorts, which can be befuddling. To enable comprehend these shorts and to make it less demanding for medicinal services suppliers to decipher the outcomes, labs leading these tests give point by point reports to each test led.

There are two “”regular”” phenotypic tests accessible: Monogram Bioscience’s PhenoSense examine and Virco Lab’s Antivirogram. The two tests assess the overlay changes for the majority of the accessible NRTIs, Protease Inhibitors, and NNRTIs. Monogram Biosciences has a different phenotypic measure, called PhenoSense Passage, which tests HIV’s affectability to the section inhibitor Fuzeon.

Another test is Virco Lab’s vircoTYPE HIV-1 measure. This is really a “”prescient”” phenotypic test, utilizing genotypic testing results to make sense of what the infection’s phenotype is, without really playing out a phenotypic test. To do this, labs utilize genotyping testing to decide whether a HIV test has changes known to cause tranquilize protection. Once the genotype has been resolved, the research center ventures a database kept up by Virco containing the genotypes of a few thousand HIV tests gathered from other individuals. It at that point recovers the phenotypes the crease changes that relate to these examples, midpoints the data together and predicts the medications that the present example will be pretty much delicate to.

Note that Monogram Biosciences and Virco compute their shorts in an unexpected way. Therefore, the shorts decided for one organization’s test (e.g., PhenoSense) don’t make a difference to the shorts decided for the other organization’s test (e.g., vircoTYPE).

The key to avoid getting HIV and staying protected is to look out for specific cures that are being distributed from the many biotechnology companies who are trying to develop them. The best way to prevent HIV from spreading is encouraging an HIV test whenever you schedule a hospital visit , it would also be in everyone’s best interest to encourage their partners to get one too. HIV and Aids are easily spread so when it comes to any type of protection or precaution, it’s better to be safe than sorry.

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