The effect of coffee consumption on the risk of hypertension

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: hypertension can be defined as a disorder that makes the blood to exert some forces against the walls of the blood vessels. This force depends on the rate of heart beats as well as the resistance from the blood vessels. The medical guidelines define this disorder as pressure higher than 140 over 90 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

AIM: Caffeine compounds are present in coffee and tea. We aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic coffee or tea consumption on blood pressure mortality.

METHODS: Hierarchy system of evidence- based medicine (EBM). It is used to find the highest level of evidence to answer most critical clinical questions.

RESULTS: results have demonstrated either a neutral and beneficial report which indicates that moderate consumption (3-4 cups/day) on blood pressure.

DISCUSSION: The widely consumed beverage coffee has risen some controversy on matters regarding its safety on blood pressure.

CONCLUSION: based on the integrated approach of evidenced based medicine, moderate consumption of coffee, is not only beneficial to healthy personnel but also safe to patients with high blood pressure as Mansia (1 p 22(4) ) argues . Therefore coffee consumption should not be restricted to patients as long as they follow the accommodated rules and regulations.

Introduction

Hypertension is a common health problem in the current world. Blood pressure makes the body vulnerable to coronary artery disease, stroke, and kidney related diseases and reduces the mortality rate. Most people have the notion that incorporating healthy lifestyles can prevent hypertension. Excess body weights, unhealthy dietary habits, coffee consumption has been among other things considered to increase the risk of hypertension. Recent studies have demonstrated that among other variables, economic status and smoking habits have highly attributed to hypertension while coffee intakes have the capacity of effectively reducing the instances of hypertension. Coffee is composed of several compounds that influence the human homeostasis as well as improve the body metabolism in term of facilitating caffeine, niacin, minerals and fiber.

The fact that coffee is beneficial greatly depends on its chlorogenic acid content Caffey and ferulic acid enhance production of inflammatory mediators. Coffee is also known to enhance production of chlorogenic acid in the diet. Long-term consumption of coffee increases the blood pressure as it blocks the adenosine receptors in the vascular tissue that in turn facilitate microcirculation though it not clearly known.

The study of coffee consumption and blood pressure is not clear because the effects of consumption always varies depending on whether consumers had a short-term or long-term relationship with the beverage. Prospective epidemiological mode of study can enhance an immense methodology of approach in terms of identification of the factors that may distort the health effect of a long-term consumer of the consumer.

On the other hand this method to some extent is scarce and has controversial results. Various studies have been conducted to show the actual increase of blood pressure after accommodation of caffeine. Short duration use have a lot if disadvantages as compared to the long-term use of the same. Recent experimental studies conducted on hypertensive disorder showed that caffeine intake produce the immediate increase of blood pressure but there is no instance between the long-term coffee consumers and blood pressure.

Though caffeine is responsible for the first blood pressure alteration the liver is able to metabolize the beverage. The ability of the liver to undertake the task is greatly determined by the smoking of cigarettes as well as use of contraceptives.Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world context. There has been an outstanding controversy regarding consumption of coffee as it is associated with blood pressure. The controversy was based upon old perspectives and studies which had earlier showed a positive association of coffee drinking and enhancement of hypertension. Recent studies have demonstrated that moderation use of coffee has either a neutral or beneficial effect on consumers.

The required amount of the beverage a person should accommodate on a daily basis can be 3-4 cups a day. During the preparation of the final report, a Medline database conducted between the year 2010 and 2016.the main aim of the study was aimed at collecting data on effect of coffee consumption among patients suffering from high blood pressure and other health related diseases. 34 papers were selected among the total 94 reviewed abstract. Based on the evidence, coffee consumption in a moderate way is always safe in both healthy and patients diagnosed with high blood pressure. As a result, the study ascertains that coffee consumption should not be restricted although it should be consumed in a moderate way.The goal of the study is to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and the vulnerability of developing hypertension in the sample of HAPPIE study.

METHODS

The populationThe HAPPY study is aimed in investigating the role of biological, lifestyle, dietary and environmental factors in high blood pressure and other chronic related diseases. Sample selections were used to carry out the survey. Random sampling that involved use of 10729 subjects of between the age of 45 and 69 years were incorporated in the recruitment of the survey conducted in the year 2002 and 2005. The selected populations were provided with written consent and were required to complete a structured questionnaire so as to undergo a clinical examination.

The analysis was conducted with individuals who were free from hypertension at the baseline and used the exclusion method where those who did not undergo follow-up visit, lack of required information on blood pressure levels and inability to answer in more than 50% of the questionnaire. The final selection involved 2725 individuals who were free from hypertension.

The obtained sample had some relevance with the original samples in the background information. Other variables that could not be neglected were also ascertained. They included mean blood pressure levels, smoking status and coffee consumption had some differences as a result of inclusion and exclusion.Dietary assessmentThis data was collected using the FFQ based tool.

The tool consisted of 148 food and drinks that were consumed during a period of 3 months. Energy nutrients were calculated through the food composition tables to evaluate sodium and potassium intake. The average coffee consumption was also ascertained bases on the sizes used and then converting into 24 hour intake.Statistical analysisThe study was mainly defined on the basis of coffee consumption categories. Natural differences in hypertension risk between the males and females were conducted.

The descriptive presentation was based upon the cross tabulations. Obtained variables should show continuous relevance and should be presented as means and standard deviations. On the other hand the categorized ones are frequencies and percentages. Variables were examined as Kolmogorov. Chi-square test was used for comparisons of categorical variables. Continuous variables are enhanced through the use of Kruskall- Wallis. There existed some differences between the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure on different categories of coffee in term of consumption.

The differences are tested using analysis and can also be incorporated using the linear contract analysis. Mean differences between the follow-up baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure values obtained from various categories were also calculated. The relationship between the baseline consumption and instances of hypertension was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The crude, age-adjusted and full- adjusted models were performed for the whole sample in terms of different gender analysis. Calculations that involved odds ratios and 90% confidence intervals of having the high blood pressure was conducted. A full- adjusted multivariable model was adjusted for all variables associated with hypertension. T

he variables are also determined by age, gender, education status, smoking habits, and diabetes at the baseline, sodium and potassium intake among other things. The interaction was found for smoking status, the analysis was repeated after stratification of each samples variable. Statistical significance was incorporated. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for windows 21.0.

RESULTS

Results show that there are no unique differences between the men and women in terms of coffee consumption. On the other hand coffee consumers are younger when age is taken into consideration.

They have high prevalence of smoking and have higher total energy intake. Coffee intake prevalence was also evidenced among most men who consume alcohol. In women who consumed fewer amounts of coffee results indicated that they had high possibility of getting diabetes as compared to the ones consuming a high amount of the same. Results also indicate that the amount of cigarette consumption per day amongst men and women tend to increase the amount of coffee consumers. An increase of high blood pressure that was more in lower consumers of coffee in both men and women was ascertained.

The model demonstrated that there exists a low level of risk of obtaining hypertension in all consumers of 3-4 cups of coffee per day. Results also shows that higher consumption of coffee has little significance of getting into risk of hypertension.

Discussion

It aims at evaluating the association of coffee consumption with that of blood pressure. The study should incorporate the daily intake as well as potential factors. The consequences of caffeine intake are well known. The causes of chronic coffee consumption and its contribution to blood pressure is still unknown. Recent study of analytical randomization of clinical trials on effects of coffee and caffeine shows that blood pressure is only significant in caffeine but lack some relevance in the coffee intake sep 37(1). Such observation may conclude that although ingestion of caffeine may increase the blood pressure the hypertensive effect may not necessarily be obtained. Some studies reveal that blood pressure increase may be facilitated by rapid tolerance that enhance rise in muscle that occur in both habitual and non-habitual consumers. Results indicate that no habitual coffee drinkers are more likely to develop hypertension.

CONCLUSION

The average consumption of 3-4 cups of coffee can be highly ascertained to facilitate the decreased risk of hypertension among non-smokers and the coffee intake can also be associated with systolic blood pressure.

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