Suicide: Causes and Symptoms

Abstract

Suicide has always been a very difficult discussion to most all people. Suicide or suicidal people are people who choose to take their own life or a person who is thinking about ending their own life. Years past, individuals may have been arrested for reporting such illness to authorities, but within recent years, these persons no longer risk being arrested with so many fatalities in recent studies. Per studies in history, there are some demographics that my group would like to discuss in the final research paper. There are things or leading factors that may add up to the risk of suicide that may include race, sex, history growing up, other illnesses associated, stress, disabilities, substance abuse, or health problems that have been linked to increasing the risk of this illness. There are many warning signs as well such as statements made, withdrawing from society, or drastic changes in ones’ personality that have been associated with suicide. Even though this is a very serious illness that impacts many adolescents and adults, there have been studies of treatments that make these victims survivors in their attempts or thoughts of suicide. We would like to implement the concept of the CDC, or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which is a group that assists with the treatments of suicide and the rates in recent years.

Introduction

Suicide has always been a very difficult discussion to most all people. It is often difficult to separate the cognitive components of suicide from the emotional and moral counterparts (Nail, S., Nesrin, S. H., & Sibel, T., 1994, p. 213). Webster’s New American Dictionary defines the term “suicide” as “self-destruction”. Suicide or suicide is when a person chooses to take his own life, and suicidal people are people who choose to take their own life or a person are people who is thinking repeatedly contemplate about ending ending their own life. Years past, individuals may have been arrested for reporting such illness to authorities, but within recent years, these persons no longer risk being arrested with so many fatalities in recent studies. Per studies in history, there are things or leading factors that may add up to the risk of suicide that may include race, sex, history growing up, other illnesses associated, stress, disabilities, substance abuse, or health problems that have been linked to increasing the risk of this illness. There are many warning signs as well such as statements made, withdrawing from society, or drastic changes in ones’ personality that have been associated with suicide. Even though this is a very serious illness that impacts many adolescents and adults, there have been studies of treatments that make these victims survivors in their attempts or thoughts of suicide. Some evident warning signs of suicidal thoughts within adults and teens may be suicidal statements, withdrawing from society, aggressive or hostile behavior and maybe even actions such as running away from home.

Causes and Symptoms

Suicide is considered to be the ninth leading cause of death nationwide. It is found to be the second leading cause of death among 15 to 24 year olds; this rate has been increasing each year. No age, socioeconomic status, gender, occupational, racial, or ethnic group seems to be immune to or exempt fromto commiting suicide.

In order to explain the causes of suicide, sociological studies try to relate suicide rates to changes in society, such as “political and cultural destabilization, national and international conflicts, urbanization, prolonged obligatory education, secularization, increases in population, production and consumption of drugs and alcohol” (Nail, S., Nesrin, S. H., & Sibel, T., 1994, p. 215). In contrast, psychological studies relate suicide rates to how changes in society cause psychic pain forpsychological harm certain individuals with “certain characteristics, who possess the commonalities of suicidal behaviour” (Nail, S., Nesrin, S. H., & Sibel, T., 1994, p. 215).

One of the principal aspects of suicide is its link with depression; individuals who are clinically depressed are at a high risk of suicidal behavior. To assess the indicators a suicidal individualevaluate the clues of a suicidal individual, it is important to have extensive knowledge of relevant risk factors and observable symptoms. A study examined the knowledge and skills of professional educators as well as assessing the hypothetical adolescents who were at risk for suicide. One of the main purposes of the study was to see how capable successful educators are in identifying signs of adolescents at risk of suicidal behavior when influenced by race, gender, and socioeconomic status (Hamrick, J. A., Goldman, R. L., Sapp, G. L., & Kohler, M. P., 2004). The outcomes of the study suggest the need for regular and special educators to be trained to identify suicidal behaviours.

Treatments

Treatment for suicidal people is out there, but in all actuality, only those looking for help is what makes treatments successful. For each reason of why suicidal thoughts start, there is a treatment. Doctors are careful not to give suicide patients, with known drug abuse, the anti-idepressants or any other drug used that the patient could abuse and overdose. Instead, psychotherapy, addiction treatment, and family support are options for those who abuse drugs. Psychiatrists help suicidal people in boosting their self-confidence, making them feel important, giving them an open mind and opinion on personal views, and helping their social skills get better (Lu, 2017). Talking to psychiatrist is not for everyone though,. some or mostMost people tend to like being left alone or do not want help at all. Drugs such as anti-idepressants, anti-psychotics, anti-anxiety, etc., are also used to treat suicidal patients. This, however, is not recommended for the severe patients (Lu, 2017). Results have shown treating acute suicidal patients with second generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers are, in fact, effective. Some that were treated with antidepressants showed a slight improvement or none at all ( Raja and Azzoni, 2008). The more severe cases of suicide leads the patient to be help in a psych ward under 24 hour surveillance at all times. All objects that can be used to commit suicide are nowhere near the patient at this time. The treatments can vary depending on the severity of the suicidal person, but all can use the family support and education treatment for starters.

Trends Worldwide

Suicide has become a critical, worldwide problem culpable of many unanticipated deaths. IResearch shows that in 2016 alone, nearly 45,000 suicides occurred in the United States among persons aged older than 10 years (Stone, D. M., Simon, T. R., Fowler, K.A., Kegler, S. R., Yuan, K., Holland, K M & Crosby, A.E., 2018). Suicide is trending upward it has increased among both male and female, all racial ethnic groups and all urbanization levels. The most recent overall suicide rates (representing 2014 2016) varied fourfold, from 6.9 (District of Columbia) to 29.2 (Montana) per 100,000 persons per year (Stone, D. M., Simon, T. R., Fowler, K.A., Kegler, S. R., Yuan, K., Holland, K M & Crosby, A.E., 2018). Traveling East, New Zealand described as one of the highest teenage suicide rates among industrialized countries. Suicide in the 15-19 age group has increased over the last twenty years, from 5.8 per 100,000 in 1970 to 15.7 in 1991. In 1991, the suicide rate for the 20-24 age group was 31.3 per 100,000, with the increase much higher among males than females. Males aged 15-19 commit suicide at the rate of 26.9 per 100,000, while the rate for teenage girls is only 3.6 (Drummond, W. J., 1997). The rates between men and females show to be higher in New Zealand because men use more irreversible means than women do, men are physically stronger and can hurt themselves more than a woman would be able to. South Korea ran a chi-square test for trend to asses’s trends for the changes in suicide methods over 10-year period. They also conducted a Spearman correlation analyses to assess the correlation between time. Annual suicide rates among adolescents aged 1019 years in South Korea between 2000 and 2009 were also researched., During this period, the suicide rate among Korean adolescents increased from 4.2 to 6.9 per 100,000 population in males and from 3.3 to 6.2 per 100,000 in females. Jumping was the most common method of suicide among Korean females between 2000 and 2009, but the rate of hangings significantly increased (Park, S., Cho, S., Kim, B., Kim, J. Yoo, H. J., & Hong, J. P., 2014). Over time changes in several regions of India have contributed to suicide, India is known as “Suicide Capital of South-East Asia”. In 1967 the suicide rate in India was 7.8, but it has steadily increased to 11.0 in 2013, with a peak rate of 11.4 in 2010 (Ponnudurai, R. 2015). Suicide varies from one career to another, age group etc. A report of the Government of India in 1999 revealed that more than 65% of all suicides are committed by persons between ages of 15 and 24 years. Not surprisingly, higher suicide rate in youth was already observed by several Indian studies too. In the recent report published by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) even as 34.4% of all suicides was between 15 and 29 years, almost equally, i.e. 33.8% of all suicides was also between 30 and 44 years (Ponnudurai, R. 2015). Suicide trends vary from one side of the world to another, yet cause the same amount of agony to those left behind. “

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