Nursing theories are important tools for the designing, understanding, and application of diabetes patient education (Anderson, Funnell, & Hernandez, 2005). Imogene King is one of the nursing theorists who has made significant contributions to nursing. King’s Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (TGA) is valuable in the care of diabetes patients and adherence to treatment. In my unit most commonly-used nursing theories include, King’s theory of goal attainment to the care of the adult with diabetes mellitus. TGA theory is categorized as a middle-range theory and it is based on mutual and therapeutic relationship between nurses and their clients (“Imogene King,” n.d.). According to Mohsen and Mahsa (2018) King’s theory is based on four main elements. King believes, health is attained through appropriate nurse-patient relationship; a mutual understanding of nurse and patient is essential; the goals and functions of nurse and patient need to be in line with each other; and nurse needs to use all his/her knowledge to establish relationship and set goals (Mohsen and Mahsa, 2018).
Analysis of Theories
Today, nursing care is not focused upon the patient only, it is a collaborative effort among healthcare professional, patient and family members or caregivers. It is believed that including everyone increases patient satisfaction and open communication. King’s TGA is more relevant to individualized care, not one-size-fits-all approach (Caceres, 2015). As nurses we follow all five stages of nursing process, such as assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. According to King, nursing process is vital to goal-setting and goal-attainment and a nurse should practice at their fullest potential for best outcome (Caceres, 2015). King defines human being as an open system where they are action and goal-oriented and goal is optimum health. She argues that even though we in open system, our motivations, desire and needs can be different from others and directly influenced by culture. It is vital for the nurses to take everything into consideration when setting up goals for the patients. King also identifies client’s wiliness to participate and learn about diabetes self-care. To establish a trusting relationship with the client, a nurse should communicate non-verbally and verbally effectively (Caceres, 2015).
Silva, Moreira, Almeida, Freitas, and Guedes (2018) conducted a randomized longitudinal experimental study, to verify the effectiveness of nursing care with diabetes patients based on King’s theory. The aim of this study was to control this chronic disease through client’s adherence to medical treatment, lifestyle changes and implementation of healthy behaviors. Nurses role was to assist these patients and their families in diabetes self-care and thus, help facilitates learning. Communication is a powerful tool and nurse should purposefully interact with patients to mutually establish goals such as, diet modification, regular exercise, timely medication and the proper dose of medication, daily intake of fruit, cut down sugar from the diet, weight loss. This study proves that as a healthcare professional it is our role to motivates our patience in adherence to medical regimen through effective communication. This study also explains the non-adherence is due to cost of insulin which many do not prioritize the purchase of this medication. It is proved that by empowering treatment, many will feel co-responsible, and adherence rates improve. Low level of education or knowledge in this disease process and complication is also a barrier. While each interaction a nurse should let the participant take part active through encouraging them in a verbal exchange. According to Aragejo et. al, (2018) it is important to be involved with patients, their problems, their joys, their everyday knowledge and their social reality. This study reveals that King’s TGA is beneficial for better adherence to diabetes management as the patient feels co-responsible for his/her treatment.