Federalism in Texas
Federalism is a type of government where power is divided in to two political entities which are the regional and the central government. In the United States, the constitution separate power between the state and federal or national government where each unit has self-governing authority (Weissert, 2011). There are several interpretations of federalism, that is, dual, new, competitive, picket-fence and marble-cake federalism. To start with, the dual or layer cake federalism, 1790-1930, is a classification where the two government positions conduct their activities separately. This ensures a balance of power between the state and national government. The second form of federalism is the co-operative or marble cake federalism, 1930-1960 where the two government levels share power in equal portions with the intent of solving common problems.
Creative or the picket-fence federalism, 1960-1980 permits the national government to make decisions on what the states require and allocates resources to them. The fourth interpretation of federalism is the new federalism, 1980-2001, involves reassertion of authority to the local and state governments with the intention of generating steadiness between the two. The fifth theory of federalism is the competitive where the local governments contend or race with other local governments (Weissert, 2011). In this category, citizens select the regional government to live under, sponsors pick the local government to sponsor or invest in and the government competes for the people.
I think that the form of federalism that is the most consistent with Texas’s political culture is the picket-fence federalism. Basically, the political culture in Texas is traditionalistic and individualistic. The individualism in Texas is portrayed through the social and economic conservatism, superior support of personal or individual politics, lack of trust in political parties and the reduced significance of political parties. On the other hand, the traditionalistic culture is exhibited where social order is conserved and the minority and poor societies were denied the right to vote (Ricker, 2012). In the modern Texas, these two cultures are still demonstrated through the habits, attitudes, values, traditions, the overall behavioral pattern from Texans and in the government rules and policies.
Texas is strongly industrialized, with quite a number of powerful elites and business men and women. Further, the state is the leading producer of computers and other high-tech related commodities. Also, the field of Agriculture remains relevant, although moderately few Texans practice it. Politically, the regional governments are constituents of the federal organization and are therefore shaped or influenced by the decisions made by the state and national governments and additional local governments. According to the Texas constitution and law, the local governments are highly limited to what is allowed by the state. Despite the fact that the regional governments offer nearly all direct contact between the occupants and their government, voter indifference at this government level is still a challenge. The regional government is very significant in the daily lives of Texans (Essays UK, 2013).
The local government’s structure and the election policies largely contribute in determining the winning candidate and who profits from the government. One of the major regional government’s challenges is the growing demand for services from the occupants as well as the federal and state government with their minimal revenue basis. In the recent years, the justice systems in Texas are more attentive to claims of denial of civil rights from the people as compared to before (Erk & Swenden, 2010) The state has not yet attained educational fairness in the public school but the legislature has been forced to enable impartiality in the education system. Issues to do with school prayers, abortion and individual expression have caused severe disagreements and have not been matured judiciary despite the efforts and engagement from the state and federal courts.
From the above explanation about the political culture in Texas, I would argue that the state is more consistent with the creative or the picket fence type of federalism. This is because the national government has allocated mote power to the state government where the federal government has unswerving authority over the statewide curriculum (Weissert, 2011). Further, the federal and state governments are constantly involved in attempts to create a better state and eradicate problems such as educational inequality, abortion and personal expression disagreements. Also, the rule makers work together across the government levels. Texas as well has been dependable on the creative federalism where the local, state and national governments have been persistent in sharing the responsibility of setting educational policies.
However, the majority of the bureaucrats in the education field don’t interact one on one with the state, local and national government representatives who operate in agricultural and health care departments. Also, the state and the federal governments have grown to be extra inter-reliant on one another (Essays UK, 2013). The federal government as well funds the state and the local governments to help solve some monetary challenges especially in the fields of the general wellbeing of citizens, education, employment and training and healthcare. This is aimed at putting power and authority back to the local and state leaders with the aid of the federal funds. There have been efforts as well from the state and federal governments to accomplish the set goals which favor the Texan state.
Texas legislations and rules are greatly manipulated by the federal government in two approaches. The start with, the state is subject to authorization of the United States national laws and constitution. Further, the state is subject to the Bill or Rights which assure a wide collection of civil freedoms and national public rights under the 14th Amendment and commerce article. Further, Texas is also subject to the Americans with Disability Act which demands that the qualified job applicants with disability should be given a fair trial or opportunity. Secondly, the national government has the authority to amount vast pressure via fiscal federalism and utilization of categorical grants to convince the state to ratify or pass specific policies (Essays UK, 2013). From the above explanations, majorly accruing from the maintenance of an individualistic culture by the Texans where independence, social conservatism and other values and traditions are upheld, I think that the creative federalism theory has been unvarying in Texas.