Defense policy

This essay represents the first phase of a multi-year collaborative essay initiative of the Association of Ontario. The essay is designed to develop a picture of a pass away from the secondary moments to college. As a matter of fact, the main aim of this essay is to identify secondary schools students perceptions of the Ontario College as well as their perception of college as a post-secondary education destination for them (Sutter, & Paulson, 2017). Moreover, the essay will discuss the factors which have shaped their perception.

Secondly, the paper will discuss the achievement patterns, graduation, and course enrolment associated with secondary schools students in order to consider their influence on future enrolments. According to a survey done, approximately, 21385 Grades 11, 12, as well as 5 students enrolled in 73 secondary schools (Angrist, et al. 2016). Ontario College was represented by this schools in terms of size and type of school. Addition to the survey, each school asked requested to submit school calendar and course enrolment in order to assess the availability of college destination as well as the course sequences that lead to college (Rose, 2016).

More than sixty schools presented information for this analysis. Notably, data from phase3, phase 4 and the double cohort study were also used in conducting a preliminary analysis of college applicants according to their performance and marks obtained during their secondary school’s final examination (Angrist, et al. 2016). According to the results obtained during the introduction of the reorganized program in Ontario secondary schools, it is evident that there is a gradual change in the flow of students to university and college (Castleman, & Long, 2016).

Comparing universities and colleges, there is a different implication.

Firstly, the change in the ratio of 5-4 year graduates had a much impact on the universities than college hence leading to a substantially larger double cohort effect at the universities.

Secondly, enlargement of the universities to accommodate the double cohort in combination with appreciation in the percentage of student meeting university administration expectations and requirement had the effect increasing the proportion of students joining university after secondary schools.

Thirdly, the decline in the proportion of students in secondary schools who graduate in less than 5 years from 78% to 68% along with the increment of enrolls in universities had the effect of minimizing the proportion of students who graduate in 5 years and Join College directly (Castleman, & Long, 2016). There is slight growth in the size of 18-19-year-old cohort according to the changing patterns of the age group from which college student are drawn.

According to student views of a college education, pronounced differences were evident in the proportion of grade 11 and 12 who planned on universities compared to those who planned in college (Sutter, & Paulson, 2017). Grade 11 has 56.7% in university while in college has, it has 22.6% while grade 12 has 54.1% and 27.2% in universities and college respectively (Rose, 2016). Evidently, there has been different status between universities and college among students while other assumed a greater economic returns from a university education.

At this moment, a greater number of students tend to support college education because they are focusing on work opportunity after their graduation. The number of students who were unable to attain secondary schools education was approximately 30 percent of each of the three grade groups. Majorly, marks plan the key role in the planning of students educational plan with universities planning students with pass-mark of at least 80% while on the other hand, colleges are targeting students with 605 and 70%.


Angrist, J. D., Cohodes, S. R., Dynarski, S. M., Pathak, P. A., & Walters, C. R. (2016). Stand and deliver: Effects of Bostons charter high schools on college preparation, entry, and choice.В Journal of Labor Economics,В 34(2), 275-318.

Castleman, B. L., & Long, B. T. (2016). Looking beyond enrollment: The causal effect of need-based grants on college access, persistence, and graduation.В Journal of Labor Economics,В 34(4), 1023-1073.

Rose, D. (2016). The Public Policy Roots of Women’s Increasing College Degree Attainment: The National Defense Education Act of 1958 and the Higher Education Act of 1965.В Studies in American Political Development,В 30(1), 62-93.

Sutter, N., & Paulson, S. (2017). Predicting college students’ intention to graduate: a test of the theory of planned behavior.В College Student Journal,В 50(3), 409-421.

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