Thesis: As a result of the dawn of civilization, humanity evolved, and it benefited all of mankind, but especially the upper-class society. Despite the disadvantages that the lower-class had to endure, the advancements of civilization were favorable for society as a whole because people were able to rely on a sufficient food supply.
All of society benefited from the advances of Mesopotamian Civilization, especially the upper-class because they had a food surplus which contributed to a more stable lifestyle. The arrival of civilization brought several advancements such as the domestication of animals, establishment of cities and villages, population growth, new jobs, and technological progress. According to Marvin Perry, (Western Civilization; Ideas, Politics, + Society Voll. 2009), people produced crops near their homes and no longer needed to agonize over their next meal. In addition, rather than chase animals, people domesticated them in their fields to slaughter for food and utilize them for transportation. These advancements created food surpluses and led to the establishment of permanent settlements and the development of cities and villages. It was essential for people to live near their fields in order to maintain their crops. Furthermore, food surpluses were beneficial because people were able to focus more of their time cultivating their talents. (Perry, Marvin, Western Civilization; Ideas, Politics, + Society Voll. 2009) This allowed new jobs to emerge and the creation of a social hierarchy. As stated by Worlds Together Worlds Apart, the Sumer social hierarchy included the kings and priests, bureaucrats, supervisors, and finally the craftsmen, farmers, and slaves. The upper-class benefited from this as they were considered to be more important and knowledgeable than those who belonged to the lower-class, such as, craftsmen and farmers. Therefore, the upper-class would receive the more preferable jobs. The lower-class, however, experienced some disadvantages which included the obligation of working for the ruling class and the requirement to pay taxes. (Worlds Together Worlds Apart) Although the lower-class did experience some of these disadvantages, advances in civilization were profitable to humanity because they enabled people to have a reliable food supply and a secure and established lifestyle.
Even though civilization in Sumer consisted of a few disadvantages for the lower-class, such as having to work for the controlling leaders of society and not receiving the more preferable jobs, early civilization advances were valuable to mankind as a whole in several ways. Primarily, society was enhanced because people were able to depend on a sufficient food source and had food surpluses. This advantage of food surpluses led to many achievements, such as the rise is the standard of living, population growth, permanent settlements and the formation of cities and villages. These advances gave all of society the opportunity to live a more stable life, rather than the unpredictable and difficult paleolithic lifestyle of hunting and gathering. Despite the few drawbacks the lower-class encountered, the advances of civilization contributed to a more secure lifestyle and were vital to humanity as a whole. (Stavrianos)